As the largest Russian energy holding and a major user of national water resources, RusHydro Group takes a responsible approach to operating and developing power generation capacities, working to preserving the environment and biodiversity.
Ongoing modernization initiatives together with energy conservation and higher energy efficiency, advancement of renewable energy and innovative development are set to reduce negative environmental footprint and increase the Company’s shareholder value.
RusHydro Group adheres to environment protection and sustainable use of natural resources while observing the approved Environmental Policy, which is based on Russia’s national policy for environmentally sustainable development and safety, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal laws and regulations, and international treaties of the Russian Federation governing the same.
RusHydro Group also takes into account global standards for environmental management and international best practices applicable to energy projects.
While planning and carrying out its operations, the Group abides by the precautionary approach adopted by the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992* .
The Environmental Policy takes into account the specific operating environment of RusHydro Group’s hydropower and heat assets. The Policy sets out KPI seeking to increase the installed capacity of low-carbon generation, reduce direct and per unit greenhouse gas emissions, prevent species elimination as a result of operating activities, additionally train staff in environmental protection, etc.
The plan by 2025 is to increase the installed capacity of low-carbon generation by 632.3 MW and reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than 6% as compared to 2015 (base year recommended by the Russian Ministry of Economic Development). The intensity of СО2 emissions is set to decrease 7.7% in the electricity generation segment and 6.4% in the heat production segment. [OS]
The Environmental Policy also addresses today’s challenges and trends in environmental protection. The document incorporated proposals by federal government authorities: Ministry of Energy, Ministry of Economic Development and the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, as well as the UN Sustainable Development Goals.
The Environmental Policy is binding on all companies within RusHydro Group perimeter as well as entities that collaborate with the Group on contractual terms.
In 2019, RusHydro Group approved the Implementation Program for the Environmental Policy, which details measures and activities of the Headquarters, branches, and subsidiaries. The program was developed for the three-year period from 2019 to 2021.
Also, as part of the Rehabilitation and Modernization Program, RusHydro procures to upgrade and replace hydropower units and repair HPP turbines, including to prevent environmental contamination in the course of its operations. Bank protection efforts are ongoing to maintain water conservation zones in good repair. RusHydro Group seeks to replace oilfilled electrical equipment with vacuum or SF6 gas, which contains no oil, or with that with lower oil content.
RusHydro Group also employs other initiatives to reduce its negative environmental footprint, including:
RusHydro adheres to a number of technical standards providing for environmental safety. The standards also apply to RusHydro’s subsidiaries.
To assess the impact on environment and ensure industrial control, RusHydro introduced corporate standards such as Hydroelectric Power Plants: Environment Protection, Environmental Impact Assessment. Guidelines and Hydroelectric Power Plants: Industrial Environmental Control. Standards and Requirements.
National Standard GOST R 58 224−2018 Hydroelectric Power Plants. Loss Allowance for Turbine Oil While in Operation. Method of Calculation for Turbine Oil Losses While in Operation applies to both the Company’s day-today management and state supervision.
RusHydro Group ensures environmental safety at all stages of the life cycle of its industrial facilities. Prior to starting a new project or modifying the existing facilities (at the project initiation and design stages), the Company procures to assess their impact on environment.
In 2019, public hearings were held to discuss the deliverables from the assessment of the environmental impact of Artyomovskaya CHPP-2 construction, following which it was concluded that the assessment deliverables and the construction design required no further change.
It is mandatory for the Company to develop and obtain government approvals for standards applicable during the construction and operation of its facilities which establish permissible pollutant emission and discharge limits, waste generation and disposal limits as well as design documentation related to environmental protection, which comprise initiatives to prevent and reduce negative environmental footprint, including measures to preserve biodiversity.
These documents are to be approved by the respective government agencies in charge of environmental protection, including:
The Company relies on the documents so approved to carry on its business in compliance with environmental protection standards.
RusHydro Group actively cooperates with international organizations on matters of environment protection and conservation of biological diversity. The Group supports industry-specific and international initiatives to reduce the man-made load on the environment and strives to adopt best practices for the successful implementation of its environmental projects.
In 2019, RusHydro continued its membership in international industry associations such as the Centre for Energy Advancement through Technological Innovation (CEATI), the International Hydropower Association (IHA) and the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD). Membership in these organizations enables the Company to interact with the world community on the safe, innovative and sustainable development of hydropower.
To promote the principles of sustainable development in Russia, the Company contributes to the implementation of the Hydropower Sustainability Assessment Protocol (HSAP) as a statutory instrument.
In 2013−2014, RusHydro was testing the HSAP with respect to some HPP facilities being designed or constructed. This helped identify a number of inconsistencies which require the improvement of internal decision-making processes. First of all, changes should affect such processes as stakeholder relations, protection of cultural heritage sites and biodiversity conservation.
To this end, the Company established a working group tasked with developing a methodological approach to ensuring and evaluating compliance of HPP projects with the criteria for sustainable development. RusHydro intends to prepare a local protocol ensuring compliance with the above criteria and start promoting its adoption as a statutory instrument in Russia.
Scientific and Technical Council
RusHydro Group has a permanent expert collective body, the Scientific and Technical Council (STC), which provides for a unified system of technical expertise ensuring that R&D solutions, projects and programs are examined for compliance with the Technical Policy and applicable technical regulations.
To ensure environmental safety while developing new technical solutions, the Company established the STC’s task force on water reservoirs and environmental protection. It includes representatives of R&D institutions, Institute for Water Problems of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Department of Land Hydrology of the Moscow State University, Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences, and the Federal Agency for Water Resources. [OS]
PJSC RusHydro also acted as an initiator and an active participant of the project implemented by the Association “Hydropower of Russia” to develop the Methodological Guidelines for Assessing Impacts on Water Bioresources in the Construction and Operation of Hydropower Plants. The project, executed by the Analytical Center under the Government of the Russian Federation and the B.E.Vedeneev VNIIG, was completed in December 2019 after its consideration and approval at RTC of PJSC RusHydro. [OS]
In 2019, total investments in environmental protection stood at RUB 1,897 mn (an increase of 12.0% y-o-y), reflecting expanded focus on making operational processes more environmentally friendly and on preventing a negative impact on the nature.
Environmental penalties and non-financial sanctions
|Penalties, RUB mn||1.4||2.3||1.6|
|Number of non-financial sanctions||60||58||35|
RusHydro Group’s pollution charges in 2019, RUB mn
|Charges for air pollutant emissions by on-site facilities, including:||27.8||22.2|
|for volume or amount of air pollutant emissions within permissible limits||16.9||18.0|
|for volume or amount of air pollutant emissions within temporary permissible limits||0.7||-|
|for volume or amount of emissions in excess of approved limits||10.2||4.2|
|Charges for pollutant discharges into water bodies, including:||7.3||13.5|
|for volume or amount of discharges within permissible limits||0.4||0.5|
|for volume or amount of discharges within temporary permissible limits||0||0|
|for volume or amount of discharges in excess of approved limits||6.9||13.0|
|Charge for industrial and consumer waste disposal, including:||63.8||56.1|
|for waste disposal within permissible limits||56.9||52.7|
|for industrial and consumer waste disposal in excess of approved limits or limits set forth by the environmental impact statement and reports on industrial and consumer waste generation, usage, decontamination, and disposal.||6.9||3.4|
The Energy Efficiency and Development national program* sets out three key areas for improving energy efficiency across all types of energy resources:
RusHydro Group’s energy saving initiatives are governed by Federal Law No. 261-FZ On Energy Saving and Improving Energy Efficiency and Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation dated November 23, 2009 and the respective programs of energy saving and increased energy efficiency (ESEEP).
In 2019, RAO ES East’s companies engaged in regulated activities*, updated and approved their programs of energy saving and increased energy efficiency for 2020−2025*.
Hydropower is a clean source of energy, causing no emissions of combustion products into the air and no greenhouse effect. By relying on water as a renewable source of energy, hydroelectric power plants are able to generate considerable amounts of power while maintaining relatively low per unit costs and sparing the use of fossil fuel.
Also, HPPs have a number properties that drive their efficiency:
Because of their many functions, hydroelectric power plants and water reservoirs sometimes have to meet direct opposite water requirements, which makes efficiency analysis a challenge. For example, discharge of water reduces the overall energy efficiency but provides a vital river runoff. Moreover, the generators operating in the synchronous compensator mode also reduce the overall efficiency but ensures the stability of the energy system as a whole.
The focus in energy efficiency assessments for HPPs is on their own consumption, since no fuel is required for power generation.
Key areas for improving RusHydro’s energy efficiency:
Better use of water resources
Better usage of water resources is another way to improve the HPP energy efficiency to reduce water discharge above turbine flows, which contributes to increased hydropower generation.
RusHydro, JSC SO UPS and PJSC FGC UES teamed up to optimize the repair schedules for power generation facilities and grids at Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP, which translated into an additional output thanks to the ruling out of water discharge above turbine flows.
RusHydro efficiently redistributed automatic load-frequency control (ALFC) reserves at the Volga-Kama cascade in a high-water season, which translated into additional output of power.
The Group’s key ESEEP initiatives in 2019 included:
To reduce grid losses and optimize energy consumption, the Company kept on installing commercial-grade electricity and heat meters while also modernizing and introducing the automated electric power accounting system.
In 2019, the key initiatives aimed at better energy efficiency and implemented at other subsidiaries not engaged in regulated activities included:
Key technical arrangements for improving energy efficiency in 2019 focused on optimizing operating modes for the equipment and systems by redistributing loads and matching the plant mix to its operating mode.
The Group’s key ESEEP initiatives in 2019 included:
Also, to reduce grid losses and optimize energy consumption, the Company kept on installing commercial-grade electricity and heat meters while also modernizing and introducing the automated electric power accounting system.
2019 saw electricity and heat consumption across the Group totaling 5,428 mn kWh and 1,100,220 Gcal respectively.
TPPs heavily rely on electricity for own consumption accounting for a hefty 10−16% of RusHydro Group’s electricity generation. In 2019, HPPs consumed 1.3% of the electricity their produced.
The main non-renewables used by the companies of JSC RAO ES East Subgroup to produce energy include coal, natural gas, and fuel oil. In addition, they consume some other non-renewables, including diesel fuel and firewood. As for renewables, geothermal steam from the Mutnovskoye hydrothermal deposit in the Kamchatka Territory is used.
The fuel mix of JSC RAO ES East Subgroup’s TPPs remained virtually unchanged.
In general, 2019 saw a marginal increase (0.6%) in TPPs' consumption as the electricity supply from TPP busbars and heat supply were up 0.1% and 0.4% y-o-y — to 28 bn kWh and 29,771,000 Gcal — respectively.
Own electricity consumption in 2019 [302−1]
|Source type||In-kind||In money terms, RUB mn|
|Electricity consumption, mn kWh||5,428||1,539.7|
|Heat consumption, Gcal||1,100||219.8|
|Coal, ‘000 tonnes||16,331||38,699.4|
|Fuel oil, ‘000 tonnes||159||3,718.3|
|Motor gasoline, ‘000||6,290||168.6|
|Natural gas, mn m3||5,583||28,475.3|
|Other fuel (including diesel fuel, kerosene, and firewood), ‘000 tonnes of equivalent fuel||149||8,210.6|
|Geothermal energy, Gcal||412,249||119.9|
In 2019, PJSC RusHydro’s ESIEEP helped the Company save 26,730,000 kWh on own consumption and additionally generate 62,103,000 kWh, having spent RUB 7,027 mn on energy saving and energy efficiency initiatives.
RAO ES East Subgroup’s companies spent RUB 1,884.0 mn in 2019 under their respective programs for energy saving and improving energy efficiency, with annual economic benefits amounting to RUB 464 mn, or 63,000 tonnes of equivalent fuel.
In 2020, RusHydro and its subsidiaries (HPPs) plan to spend RUB 5,893 mn on energy saving and energy efficiency.
RAO ES East Subgroup’s consumption per unit of equivalent fuel [302−3]
|Consumption per unit of equivalent fuel for electricity generation, g/kWh||385.2||385.9||388.7|
|Consumption per unit of equivalent fuel for heat generation, kg/Gcal||159.9||160.1||159.7|
Energy savings by RAO ES East Subgroup [302−4]
|Type of energy resources saved||2017||2018||2019|
|Natural gas, ‘000 m3||270||4,328||877|
|Diesel fuel, tonnes of natural fuel||45||46||123|
|Other fuel, tonnes of equivalent fuel||27,467||29,322||46,535|
|Thermal power, Gcal||27,868||28,443||19,991|
|Electricity, ‘000 kWh||87,151||91,099||74,610|
In 2020, JSC RAO ES East companies plan to invest RUB 2,783 mn in a number of energy efficiency initiatives which are expected to bring an annual benefit of 205,671,000 kWh of electricity, 73,462.92 Gcal of heat, 2,684,352 cu m of gas, 383.5 tonnes of coal, and 294.4 tonnes of diesel fuel.
Building a lean consumer behavior model
RusHydro Group promotes energy saving awareness
arranging for training events at schools.
For example, in line with the national policy for energy saving and improving energy efficiency, RusHydro’s PJSC RESK assists Ryazan Region in implementing the Development of Utilities Infrastructure, Energy Saving and Improving Energy Efficiency for 2015−2020 state program approved by Resolution No. 314 of the Government of Ryazan Region of October 29, 2014.
RusHydro Group operates more than 70 hydropower generation facilities making it a major user of national water resources with a footprint all over Russia.
RusHydro strictly adheres to the applicable Russian laws and timely obtains all necessary permits and licenses for water use and protection of water bodies from the authorised government agencies. The Company’s water withdrawal activities have no significant impact on water sources. [303−2]
758,582,000 m3 of water was taken in 2019, down 3.6% y-o-y, with 93% of water used for operational purposes. [303−5]
In 2019, circulating water supply systems and recycling water supply systems consumed 4.5 bn m3 and 21.2 mn m3 of water respectively.
The Group discharges water in strict compliance with the applicable Russian laws. The rights to use water bodies for such purposes are confirmed by relevant permits and licenses issued by authorized government agencies. The same permits and licenses set out the applicable discharge limits.
In 2019, waste water discharges totaled 600.2 m3, down 3.3% y-o-y, including 594.9 mn m3 discharged into water bodies and 5.3 mn m3 underground.
The general volume of RusHydro Group waste waters (93%) includes waste water produced after cooling the equipment which, due to the specific nature of the technological process, do not provide for the treatment, as it is not contaminated when passed through the plant cooling loop. Over 55% of the volume is recognized as “clean under statuory requirements” due to re-use of the same water body for uptake and discharge of waste waters; 34% of the volume is recognized as “contaminated without treatement”, due to uptake of salt water for cooling and its discharge in a fresh water body. Insufficiently treated waste waters account for only 6% of the total waste water volume. [OS]
No greenhouse gas is directly emitted when operating hydropower generation facilities and those based on renewables. The Group records CO2 emissions for JSC RAO ES East Subgroup using carbon feedstock.
Still, emissions of greenhouse gas are calculated in accordance with Order No. 300 issued by the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russian Federation on June 30, 2015, Guidelines for Calculation of Gross Carbon Dioxide Emissions by TPPs and Boilers (RD 153−34.0−02.318−2001), and data from the Carbon Fund. Greenhouse gas emissions are calculated per facility based on the fuel consumption of each facility
In 2019, emissions of greenhouse gas went up 0.55% The higher emissions in 2019 are attributable to CHPP Vostochnaya commissioned in 2018, while a 4.19% increase in CH4 emissions was driven by a greater percentage of coal with a higher carbon content in JSC DGK’s annual volume of solid fuel combustion.
2019 saw a 1.7% decline in the aggregate greenhouse gas emissions generated by solid fuel combustion and a significant decrease in N2O emissions by 1.9%.
Direct greenhouse gas emissions by JSC RAO ES East Subgroup (scope 1), '000 tonnes[305−1]
|N2O emissions in CO2-eq.||125.3||119.1||117.2||120.2||117.9|
|CH4 emissions in CO2-eq.||14.4||14.4||13.9||14.6||15.3|
One of the key challenges accounted for by RusHydro Group in its updated Environmental Policy is the global climate change and need to adapt to global warming effects threatening human life and health, flora and fauna, and causing changes in long-standing hydrological and meteorological patterns.
Low-carbon development is therefore a primary objective for RusHydro Group. Its Environmental Policy sets a number of 2025 targets, including reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and emission intensity and expansion of low-carbon installed capacity.
Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is expected to be achieved through:
The Expansion of Installed Low-Carbon Capacity target is planned to be achieved with the Comprehensive Modernization Program (Long-Term Development Program for 2012−2020 with a prospect up to 2025) providing for retrofit of RusHydro Group’s generating facilities. In addition, the Group consistently implements and intends to continue its renewable energy projects, including the construction of smaller HPPs currently underway in Northern Caucasus.
Air pollution is monitored at all production facilities of RusHydro Group.
In 2019, significant air emissions totaled 231,707 tonnes, down 2.2% y-o-y.
In 2019, the aggregate waste
generated by RusHydro Group’s
power facilities totaled 23.8 mn tonnes,
down 19.6% y-o-y.
Most wastes are those belonging to hazard classes IV and V (low risks or practically no risks), such as soil stripped during coal mining, bottom coal ashes, and waste from construction and repairs.
In the reporting period, the aggregate waste reduction was attributable to a significant decline in class V waste at JSC DGK (reducing solid fuel combustion due to lower electricity generation) and JSC LUR (reducing soil stripping operations).
Accumulated waste is collected by specialized contractors duly licensed to collect, transport and treat such waste. [306−4]
In addition, RusHydro approved Regulations on its liaising with subsidiaries in bottom ash disposal.
Total waste, tonnes[306−2]
|Hazardous waste class I and II||31||18||21|
|Hazardous waste class III, IV and V||29,191||23,178||20,688|
|RAO ES East Subgroup|
|Hazardous waste class I and II||39||45||50|
|Hazardous waste class III, IV and V||26,570,307||29,596,949||23,807,706|
|Hazardous waste class I and II||70||63||71|
|Hazardous waste class III, IV and V||26,599,498||29,620,127||23,828,393|
RAO ES East’s grid infrastructure extends to specially protected natural areas, sharing them with rare plant and animal species. [304−1] However, none of the Company’s power generation facilities is located within such areas.
As RusHydro Group seeks to minimize its impact on biodiversity and protected natural areas, none of its activities cause reduction of species, habitat conversion, or introduction of invasive species, pests or pathogens. [304−2]
As part of the United Nations Development Programme, the Global Environmental Facility and the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment of the Russian Federation, RusHydro collaborated on a unique project titled "Bureysky Compromise" during the construction of Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP. Other project participants included Directorate for Wildlife Protection and Management and Specially Protected Natural Areas (statefinanced entity, Amur Region), JSC Nizhne-Bureiskaya HPP, research and environmental 19 specially protected natural areas organizations and mass media. The project "Bureysky Compromise” pulled together a number of measures aimed at protecting biodiversity such as the establishment of the Bureysky Nature Park, installation of over 25 self-feeding stations for ungulates with food enriched with minerals and vitamins, placement of over 100 nest boxes for mandarin ducks and replanting of over 400 endemic species.
The rare species affected by the activities of Far Eastern Distribution Company is the Far Eastern stork (Ciconia boyciana). The Far Eastern stork is on the Russian Red List and the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals, and mentioned in Appendix 1 to the CITES and migratory bird protecting appendices to bilateral agreements between Russia, Japan, the Republic of Korea and the DPRK. In 2019, AO DRSK proposed an initiative to install supports for stork nests.
Water bodies affected by wastewater discharges of RAO ES East Subgroup: affiliation, volume and biodiversity [306−5]
|JSC RAO ES East Subgroup’s Subsidiaries||Water body*||Volume of average discharge, mn m3||Biodiversity value|
|PJSC Kamchatskenergo||Avacha Bay||3,800||supreme|
|JSC UESK||Bystraya River||43.2||high|
|PJSC Magadanenergo||Magadanka River||43.8||supreme|
|PJSC Sakhalinenergo||Gulf of Patience (Sea of Okhotsk)||211,250||supreme|
|PJSC Yakutskenergo||Lena River||515,610||supreme|
|JSC Chukotenergo||Kazachka River||22||medium|
|JSC DGK||Kivdinskoye reservoir||9.6||high|
|Unnamed stream discharging into Knevichanka River||-||supreme|
|Lozovy Klyuch Stream||-||high|
|Olongoro River reservoir||43.2||high|
|Galbon Anabranch (Old Amur)||-||supreme|
|Pravaya Beryozovaya River||-||medium|
|Gnilaya Pad Stream||-||medium|
|Malaya Sita River||-||high|
|JSC Teploenergoservis||Vilyuy River||72,400||supreme|
|JSC LUR||Kontrovod River (area used by JSC LUR)||-||high|
Biodiversity conservation is one of the key elements in RusHydro Group’s Environmental Policy which sets a zero plant and animal extinction target for 2025.
RusHydro Group’s Implementation Program for the Environmental Policy* has a dedicated section on biodiversity conservation initiatives, including both charitable support to specially protected natural areas and steps to be taken in order to prevent extinction of certain plant and animal species.
Animal protection [OS]
In 2019, RusHydro Group helped the Republic of Khakassia launch a research project on demoiselle cranes (Anthropoides virgo), a rare bird species. The Khakassia Nature Reserves is the Company’s key partner in this charitable initiative.
Apart from being home to the nesting grounds of these rare birds, Khakassia is also the place they transit during their migration. Demoiselle cranes are the smallest crane species. There are six main populations of these cranes known to ornithologists, and their numbers keep decreasing: in Turkey they are on the brink of extinction, while in the Balkans they disappeared completely some 100 years ago.
The research data collected in Khakassia will be used to develop a global demoiselle crane protection strategy, including a regional strategy and an action plan for the Republic of Khakassia. The Institute of Ecology and Evolution (Russian Academy of Sciences) will analyze the observation findings to identify the birds' flyways, stopover sites and pre-migration roost locations.
2019 also saw RusHydro partner up with the Sayano-Shushensky Nature Reserve to restore the snow leopard population in the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
The snow leopard (Panthera uncia), also known as the ounce, is an endangered species included on the Russian Red List. The animal is native to the mountain ranges of Central Asia, including the Himalayas, Tibet, Pamir and Tian Shan. Main threats to the species numbers in Russia include loss of prey animals (ungulates) and poaching.
As part of the preservation project, there are plans to breed adult snow leopards in captivity and release their cubs (after adapting them to living in the wild) into their historic natural habitat, while also rehabilitating injured wild animals and running a research laboratory on the premises of the SayanoShushensky Nature Reserve. The laboratory will facilitate mapping of the animals' individual home ranges to improve the quality of biological and environmental data collected snow leopards, fine-tune tools used to protect their habitats within the reserve, and enhance preservation efforts in the Western Sayan Mountains.
As part of its efforts to complete the construction of a water reservoir at Nizhne-Bureyskaya HPP, RusHydro commissioned the Malye Simichi forest guard lodge in the Bureysky Nature Park.
RusHydro supports the International Program for Reintroduction of the Leopard in the Caucasus sponsored by the Russian Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment. As part of the Program, Sochi built a Center for Reintroduction of the Leopard in the Caucasus to host remaining pure-bred leopards from zoos from around the world.
In 2015, a CCTV camera at Gizeldonskaya HPP (Northern Ossetia) captured a Persian leopard (Panthera pardus ciscaucasica) roaming in the wild for the first time in many years.
This event served as a launching pad for a partnership between the North Ossetia branch of RusHydro and the Russian Academy of Sciences' Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution (RAN IEE) focusing on a unique project designed to reintroduce leopards in Ossetia. As part of the project, RusHydro Group and RAN IEE made considerable efforts to turn natural areas within the Republic of North Ossetia (Alania) into new habitats for released Persian leopards. The exercise involved a wide range of scientific, environmental and awareness raising initiatives, including research on potential opportunities for animal releases, environmental adaptation of the habitats, and awareness raising events aiming to highlight the importance of Caucasian leopards as the patrimony of the Caucasian region and foster a responsible approach to nature.
In July 2018, two non-relative species of the Persian leopard were released in the Alania National Park with support from RusHydro. They had been raised in Sochi’s Leopard Breeding Center and trained to live in the wild without human assistance.
In 2019, scientists continued to monitor the released animals using data from satellite collars, on-site research expeditions, photos and videos.
Recovery of aquatic life [OS]
With most of the Company’s activities centered on rivers, much attention is paid to the restoration of fish populations.
RusHydro Group assesses the impact on bioresources of water bodies planned to be used in its activities. As a result, with the approval of the Federal Agency for Fishery, measures necessary for fish preservation and compensation are carried out. In particular, fish safety devices are designed, and juvenile fish is released (for this purpose, fishbreeding facilities are planned to be constructed in some cases).
In 2019, the Kabardino-Balkaria branch of RusHydro released 638,800 fishlings of the Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius), a Red List species, into the water bodies of the Kabardino-Balkarian Republic and the Republic of North Ossetia (Alania) as a way to compensate for the damage caused to water resources by HPPs. Fry release initiatives are approved and supported by the West Caspian Department of the Federal Fishery Agency.
Cheboksarskaya and Zhigulevskaya HPPs provided assistance in the release of 12,000 juvenile starlet (Acipenser ruthenus), a highly valuable fish species on the Red List, into the Volga River. The campaign promoting artificial reproduction of bioresources was mounted as part of RusHydro’s charitable program and brought together two Russian regions — the Chuvash Republic and the Samara Region. The fish stocking event was overseen by a commission from the Federal Fishery Agency.
More than 600 fishlings of the of the sterlet were released into the Votkinsk Reservoir under the supervision of experts from the Perm Territory’s Department for State Control, Supervision and Protection of Biological Water Resources (part of the Middle Volga Territorial Administration of the Federal Fishery Agency), Ural and Kama branch of Glavrybvod, and aquaculture laboratory at the Perm branch of the Russian Federal Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography (VNIRO).
Additionally, Boguchanskaya HPP monitored and assessed the impact of its water reservoir on the environment and water life in 2019.
Rehabilitation of disturbed lands
As RusHydro Group engages in the construction and operation of energy facilities, it needs to implement mandatory compensatory measures in order to save affected natural habitats and rehabilitate disturbed lands.
Habitats preserved and rehabilitated by RAO ES East Subgroup [304−3]
|Name||JSC DGK||PJSC Sakhalinenergo||JSC Chukotenergo||JSC LUR||Total|
|January 1, 2019|
|Total disturbed area, ha||2,315.5||257.6||174.7||4,110.8||6,858.6|
|including total post-construction area, ha||59.0||3.2||1.5||24.4||88.1|
|topsoil stockpiled, ‘000 m3||275.6||0.0||0.0||578.8||854.4|
|Total in 2019|
|Total disturbed area, ha||25.0||0.0||0.3||62.8||88.1|
|Total post-construction area, ha||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0|
|Total rehabilitated area, ha||3.0||0.0||1.0||0.0||4.0|
|December 31, 2019|
|Total disturbed area, ha||2,337.5||257.6||173.9||4,173.6||6,942.7|
|Total post-construction area, ha||59.0||3.2||0.5||24.4||87.1|
|Topsoil stockpiled, ‘000 m3||275.6||0.0||0.0||578.8||854.4|